Trans fats (i.e. hydrogenated vegetable oil) are often artificially produced and can be found in ice cream, shelf-stable pastries, fried foods, cheese and milk. Problematically, those with diets high in consumption of trans fats show decreased cardiovascular health and increased inflammation, obesity, and insulin sensitivity – making it important to avoid consumption of this additive. Many countries have enforced a ban on trans fats; recently California has prohibited their use in restaurants and food establishments.
Potassium bromate is found in bread-flour and flour-containing foods where it is used to treat and improve bread dough. Problematically, potassium bromate is potentially carcinogenic and has been shown to induce DNA mutations in rats. Other studies elucidate the damaging effects of potassium bromate on white blood cells, kidney function and hearing capacity. If bread is not cooked sufficiently, residual potassium bromate may remain. Because of its danger, potassium bromate has been prohibited from food in the EU, Canada, Brazil, and China. Consumers within the United States and other countries allowing the use of potassium bromate should be cautious as to their consumption of this chemical.
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Environmental Health Perspectives
OEHHA Office of Environment Health Hazard Assessment
Brominated vegetable oil (BVO) contains the atomic element bromine and is used to solubilize citrus oils within soft drinks. In the United States, the use of BVO has been limited to 15ppm although it is currently still used in Mountain Dew, Powerade, and Fanta Orange among other drinks. Excess consumption of BVO notes adverse effects as consumers have reported memory loss, tremors, fatigue, loss of coordination, and headache that were reversed upon removal of bromine from within the body. Avoid BVO consumption whenever possible.
Propyl gallate is an antioxidant that prevents the oxidation of foods containing oils and fats. One study conducted in 2009 found that propyl gallate may inhibit the action of estrogen – causing problematic effects by disrupting regulation of the body’s hormone levels. As a result, the study recommends caution in the use of the additive. Consumption of propyl gallate has also been associated with stomach and skin irritability in addition to allergic reactions – making it an important chemical to avoid.
Chemical Research in Toxicology
While BPA (bisphenol-A) is a synthetic compound found in plastic containers, it has been found to leak into the foods and liquids located within. BPA acts similarly to estrogen within the body – binding to the estradiol receptor. Having hormone modulating effects, BPA has been shown to induce harmful concerns in animals – lowering the age of puberty onset, disrupting sexual organ development and increasing the risk of cancer. In addition to this, BPA may also interfere with the thyroid gland – one of the centers of metabolic regulation. As a result, the US FDA has removed BPA from use, but this chemical still remains within Canada and the EU. To avoid harmful side effects, be cautious as to the use and purchase of packaging containing BPA.