Artificial sweeteners are ubiquitous and include aspartame, stevia, sucralose, and acesulfame potassium all of which are 200 to 600 times sweeter than traditional sugar. While often considered useful in reducing sugar cravings, hesitate to consume artificial sweeteners as they have been shown to influence and increase appetite – particularly in children. As these additives do not satiate the body’s demand for traditional carbohydrates, unsatisfied consumers search out additional food – causing problematic weight gain. In particular, studies on acesulfame potassium have found that fetal or infant exposure influences a child’s later sweetness preferences. Acesulfame potassium bears carcinogenic, mutagenic, and hormonal effects upon high levels of consumption making it especially essential to avoid.
Manufacturers include artificial colorings in common food products to boost their appeal. However, many of these dyes have been found to be potentially carcinogenic in humans. Citrus Red 2, Fast Green FCF, Indigotine, Sunset Yellow FCF, and Tartrazine are just a few of the names to be avoided. Fast Green FCF, for example, disrupts bone marrow function and interferes with brain tissue DNA in animal studies. Food dyes have also been associated with diarrhea and gastrointestinal enlargement. Tartrazine, in particular, should be avoided as it has been shown to activate estrogen receptors – increasing the possibility of developing breast or uterine cancers. Because of the problems associated with artificial coloring, select dyes have been banned from the UK and even the EU.
Sodium benzoate is a food preservative produced from a reaction of sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. This chemical inhibits bacterial and fungal development and is often found in salad dressings, carbonated drinks, jams, fruit juices, and condiments. Unfortunately, sodium benzoate has been linked to hyperactive behavior in children. Most problematically, sodium benzoate combines with ascorbic acid to form benzene – a known carcinogen. While foods containing the two chemicals, such as Coca Cola, have been found to have a safe dosage of benzene, heat, light, and shelf life can modulate the amount of benzene formed in food making this additive important to abstain from.
Refined sugars include sucrose, or table sugar, as well as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Excessive intake of these ubiquitously found sugars has been shown to induce metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, colorectal cancer, and nutritional deficiency. Sugar intake may also increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Excessive consumption of HCFS should be avoided at all costs as it has been found to induce additional metabolic issues including high blood pressure and can impair leptin – an appetite suppressing hormone. Consumers with a high-fructose diets have been shown to have increased cholesterol levels.
Europe PubMed Central
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
The Journal of Pediatrics
American Heart Association
International Journal of Cancer
Journal of the National Cancer Institute
BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) are food preservatives used for their antioxidant capacities. Addition of BHA and BHT to foods like breakfast cereals, oats, processed meats and ready-to-eat meals prevents spoilage and rancidity of the fats and oils contained within the products. However, the use of BHT and BHA has been associated with increased cancer risk in addition to an increased risk of birth defects. Particularly, animal studies show that these chemicals interact with the liver to impair its function. It has been suspected that these chemicals act as toxicants to several bodily organs resulting in strict regulation of the usage of BHT and BHA by the EU and the Food and Drug Administration. Avoid BHT and BHA consumption whenever possible.